If you read the abstract but you do not comprehend what it describes, scroll down to the bottom of the page for a graphic display to help you understand what it is all about.
|The original scientific work on my extension of relativity was done by me in 1972. I became the first person to define the structure of a photon and to adequately calculate its mass. This solution would lead me to develope an entirely new scientific platform with 21 sets of new equations, able to answer questions current science cannot. I get the correct answers for known science, such as momentum of a photon, and I gain answers unable to be gained by current science. It is testable and provable, with physical experiments, and it is validated de facto when I can apply the principles across the board to relativity, quantum mechanics, nuclear energy, astrophysics, optics and other areas of science. In 2008, I applied the principles I originated in 1972 to solve the solar neutrino problem, defining a new equation which effectively works. I also did work on gravitational fields in 2008, again using the same principles. In 2009, I wrote a paper on the distance between 2 stars. In 2010, I examined redshift in photon propagation.|
The Distance Between 2 Stars
Additionally, in calculating the distance between 2 stars, this paper will propose that the Euclidian plane is a much better and accurate proposition than using the star's Right Ascension and Declination. A visual representation is a true gauge of distance between stars, if the astral plane can be set properly.
Determining that astral plane will be discussed herein as well.
While multiple considerations are necessary for computing the distance from any star to the Earth, including general relativity, once this distance from the star to Earth has been determined the distance between any 2 stars can be calculated in the Euclidian plane using the angle created between the 2 stars and the Earth.
The actual maximum distance between 2 stars is a reflection of the shape and volume of the universe itself, although the universe to be defined is not as important as defining the methods of calculation for the distances.
The universe proposed herein is not a simple sphere. It is the universe predicted by my own extension of relativity from 1972, which is non-spherical.
Maximum Distance Proposed Between 2 Stars
It will be demonstrated that a Euclidian plane set at the northern or southern poles will present a fairly consistent angle between the 2 stars targeted. No location other than the 2 poles will satisfy a Euclidian measurement of distance within the hemisphere itself. These particular calculations will allow any measurement between 2 stars in the same hemisphere, but not from one hemisphere to the other hemisphere.
For any distance between 2 stars from one hemisphere to the other hemisphere, northern and southern, an additional calculation is necessary, connecting the two Euclidian planes tangent at the poles. This works quite well, giving us the required perspective to complete the calculation in a plane environment.
No angle will be the same throughout a 24-hour period even at the poles, but the poles do yield a fairly consistent angle, allowing good calculations within the hemisphere, and from one tangent plane to the other.
In relativity, Albert Einstein would be able to chart a flat plane consisting of the points of 2 stars and the Earth, because over that distance the space-time would be flat and empty. If this flat plane were to be put upon the northern pole, it would create a tangent space stretching out in all directions.
One example in the paper uses 2 known stars and compares them using different methods. I used an astronomy program to place myself at the northern pole for the following example. I used my own program JVPSkyHawk to calculate the distances between the stars.
Dubhe, in Ursa Major, produces a fairly consistent angle with Kochab, in Ursa Minor, at the northern pole through 24 hours, and to take one reading at 1:44:28, August 21, 2009, the visual angle is 54.06° between the 2 stars.
Contrary to this, using Right Ascension and Declination for the same 2 stars at the exact same time at the northern pole, we get 22.2037° as the angle between them. This is also fairly consistent through a 24-hour period.
In explaining Right Ascension and Declination, however, we learn that this is actually the log of a star passing through the meridian. The location is based on the hourly division of the tilted globe as it rotates. An hour is 15 degrees of time. This perspective would yield an incorrect answer if used to measure the distance between Dubhe and Kochab.
Using the Euclidian method of calculation, the distance between Dubhe (123.6 light years away from Earth) and Kochab (126 light years away from Earth) is about 119 light years ± 7 light years, over a 24-hour period.
Table of Contents
The Universe and the Maximum Star DistanceA brief overview of the predicted maximum distance between 2 stars begins the discussion. The universe is not a perfect sphere and the maximum distance is not twice the radius.
The Distance Between Two Stars in the Same HemisphereCalculations are performed for certain stars to demonstrate that azimuthal difference on the plane is the most accurate angle to use in determining distances between 2 stars. This portion concerns itself only with 2 stars in the same hemisphere of view, northern or southern. It is also explained that the calculations can take place only at one of the poles, and not on any other point of the globe.
The Distance Between Two Stars in Different HemispheresIn order to calculate the distance between 2 stars in different hemispheres, a more complicated setup is required. This entails using a focus common to both hemispheres to construct a new plane for the calculation.
A Mathematical Examination of AnglesSeveral examples are issued concerning this proof, along with visual representations, demonstrating that the azimuthal difference is actually the correct angle to use in determining the distance between 2 stars.
Mr. J.V. Presogna
DESCRIPTION: (If you have StarCalc or other astronomical software, you can position the sky so that you are at the north pole or the south pole to get the aspect shown below).
The astral plane must be placed at the north pole or the south pole to be valid, since the Earth is tilted on its axis. Only then can we allow for the measurements as I descibe. I provide a mathematical proof in my paper that the altitude in either case is irrelevant to the calculation for the distance between any 2 stars in a single hemisphere. To calculate the distance between 2 stars from one hemisphere to the other takes a more complicated action, which is also described in my paper in detail.