I am currently contacting universities in the United States to pursue experiments
concerning my original work, which I developed in 1972. Although I will not do
calculations for you on this web page, I am going to give you a genuine description
of the work I take to universities.
The Gordian Knot was the equivalent of a rubber band, wrapped around a cross so tightly that it could not be loosed. As the myth goes, it was actually a rope tied in a knot, but without any end being free. There was a challenge to anyone to untie this impossible knot.
Alexander the Great was the victor of this myth, but he cheated. He took out his sword, and he cut the Gordian Knot, thereby shocking all in his presence. This is how he became great.
The Sword in the Stone was the impossible predicament of a metal sword being thrust into a rock, and being wedged so tightly that it could not be removed. Obviously this is a myth, since whatever force was used to thrust the sword should be able to remove it as well.
King Arthur was the victor of this myth, but he did not cheat. According to the myth, he simply pulled it out as a normal person would pull out a sword from the earth itself, and thus he became king.
In science we sometimes have intractable problems, but they are not myths. They are problems so difficult that it seems there can be no logical explanation in real terms.
Yet, we know there must be some answer.
The "mathematical equivalent" response is the partner of Alexander the Great. Cutting the knot did not really untie it, but he got what he wanted anyway.
The job of Alexander the Great was to "make it work" for him. Making something work is not always the "way it is." Therefore, in science, sometimes there is a mathematical equivalent answer which is a way of making it work, but it does not actually reveal the true secret behind the reality.
General relativity has long been called an equivalent theory, as has special relativity (which came first).
Special relativity covers the special properties of light, while it views a system at relative rest with a system in motion. Galileo was the origin of relativity, where he said that absolute rest was the equivalent of constant velocity. Einstein extended this principle to reveal the relative nature of what he would call "space-time," not space and time, but something abstract called "space-time."
General relativity arose from an Einstein contradiction, and it is called the theory of gravity. In general relativity the speed of light is not constant in a vacuum, but it is actually slowed in severe gravitation (the contradiction). In his book, "Relativity, the Special and General Theory," Einstein defended himself against his critics. He said special relativity was valid, but not unlimited. Where one has severe gravitation general relativity must be used instead.
In reality, both must be used.
The GPS that everyone uses, thanks to those orbiting satellites, does indeed calculate both special and general relativity to make sure the clocks are in sync so your position on the planet may be determined.
Now, Einstein has been proved right many times in both special and general relativity, but it remains that they are both referred to as mathematical equivalents. In fact, H.A. Lorentz solved an experimental problem years before Einstein developed special relativity, using the exact same equations. Einstein derived those equations by the principles of relativity only, but they are still called the Lorentz equations.
In truth, Einstein made it all work, but there was always a question of "what is the way it is?"
He never defined the "fabric of space," never defined a "photon," contradicted himself to win the ball game, and his theories still have a couple of items left to resolve, at least one by a resoundingly high number.
In my own work in extending relativity, I actually give Einstein some substance. I define the "fabric of space" quite clearly. I take about 4 pages to summarize and define the "photon." I also resolve 2 contradictions which came out of all that early work, that of "mass, no mass," and that of "wave, particle."
Although it takes a great deal of work to actually do what I did, in simple terms one can explain wave-particle duality specifically for the photon as making it possible to show the radiance of the sun in all directions infinitely with the same definition used to explain an electron emitting a single photon. I am the only person to do such work.
It does not prove Einstein wrong, but clarifies what he assumed. Yes, matter is destroyed as it passes the speed of light, but at exactly the speed of light and a little further, mass can exist.
For example, if an object of 500 meters in diameter would be accelerated past the speed of light it would last about 0.00000165 seconds, by my calculations, before it would be destroyed. Destroyed, yes --- but not at exactly the speed of light.
This solves the 1919 problem where photons were deflected by gravitation. Photons, which travel at the speed of light, must possess mass if affected by gravitation. This is true whether it is Newton and attraction at a distance or Einstein and curved space. If it is affected by gravity, it has mass.
This brings me to the point I made earlier, which is to say Einstein was more like Alexander the Great.
There is nothing wrong with that at all, but the problem we have in science is much like the Gordian Knot. It is not what it appears to be.
The Gordian Knot was impossible.
The problem I solved was not impossible, but required perspective and analysis. It only seemed impossible from the original viewpoint.
To start from the beginning, in 1972 I solved a problem in physics which had several parts. I resolved two contradictions in relativity, defined two terms that had not been previously defined, balanced Albert Einstein's equations, clarified an Einstein conjecture, and solved wave-particle duality specifically for the photon, while providing a mathematical platform of equations that can be used across the board, including relativity, quantum mechanics, nuclear energy, astrophysics, optics, and other areas.
When I first began taking my solution public in 1998 by contacting publishers, many people outside of science did not understand the problem I had solved or that a problem even existed. To have known of the problem, or to have understood it, one would have had to have studied physics and relativity.
Once people found out that I had solved the problem, many people wanted to try to solve it themselves, since they now knew it was solvable. Prior to me, trying to solve the problem had been mostly forgotten, since Niels Bohr had advised everyone that we could simultaneously apply the properties of wave and particle to light, and that this was complimentary and satisfactory to science as it was.
The point to make is that I do have the solution, and that trying to figure out what I have done after finding out about me will not gain anyone any credit, nor would it qualify anyone for a federal grant.
The work that I have is new, unique and original work, not made for hire, and not done while at any university.
First of all, the vast majority of the people need the problem explained to them, because they do not have a fundamental grasp of what the problem is. In other words, they are not physical scientists.
The problem of wave-particle duality is complicated, and contains two contradictions which have both sides of each contradiction proved, what they call being on the horns of a dilemma.
In other words, we have proof that light acts like waves, and proof that light acts like particles. We also have proof that photons have mass and momentum, and we also have proof that mass increases with velocity. If mass increases with velocity, and we proved this in 1931 with the cyclotron, it validates Einstein's relativistic mass equation which states no mass can exist at the speed of light, thus contradicting our knowledge that photons must have mass and momentum and yet travel at the speed of light. In 1919, it must be said, photons were discovered to be deflected in gravitation, proving they have mass, and in 1905 the photoelectric effect proved photons have momentum since they transfer energy to the electron.
Therefore, these two contradictions pose a great problem. Science cannot ignore the problem as Bohr wanted us to. Science can postpone work upon the problem, but it cannot be ignored since it is fundamental to the universe itself.
In my solution, I demonstrate a number of things, all of which must be done in order for things to hold true.
I have been contacting universities since 2003, giving them an introduction to myself and the solution, while providing them with what could be termed half of the entire solution to review. They are then asked to request the remainder of the solution. This protects the integrity of my work, while allowing universities to examine the preliminary setup and perhaps even take a look at the problem themselves.
So, dozens of publishers from 1998 to 2003 and more than 61 universities since 2003 have had an opportunity to review part of the work.
The two terms defined by me are the photon, which takes about four pages to summarize, and the fabric of space, which is defined as the photons themselves. If photons have mass, there must be a lot of mass out there, and if they have mass and momentum they also provide a resistance in the fabric of space. The extension of relativity I provide is based on the principles of resistance in the fabric of space.
Since we're dealing in relativity, we would have to extend six fundamental equations, because 4 of the 6 produce the answer of infinity at the speed of light with division by zero. We must be able to calculate at the speed of light to overcome the original contradictions mentioned above. In other words, extending relativity is not an idea, but rather a known requirement.
There is much more to it than that, of course, and there are 21 sets of equations that I derived from all of this in making the solution and establishing the platform.
In resolving the contradictions I demonstrate the existence of a third action, the actual true action, which produces symptoms of wave action and particle action. To put it simply, I had to show how the radiance of the sun radiating light in all directions to infinity can be described in the same way that an electron emits one photon in quantum mechanics.
That means the answer lies in action, not energy --- the process of being. The energy is actually irrelevant.
The electromagnetic radiation spectrum, of which light is the visible portion, demonstrates both symptoms from one end of the spectrum to the other, depending on how we examine it. Light acts as we want it to act, in other words.
So, what is light?
Indeed, the answer is lengthy, and it cannot be condensed like a Reader's Digest article, but some specifics can be given in summary.
The energy of one photon, while a part of the entire definition, does not solve wave-particle duality, nor does it have anything to do with action. Additionally, the actual equation for the energy of one photon cannot be derived from first principles. As a matter of fact, you need the extension I provide. For example, without relativistic mass, you cannot gain photon displacement, and without photon displacement you cannot gain photon mass, and without photon mass you cannot gain the relativistic photon energy equation.
First principles will not get you from the relativistic mass equation to the photon energy equation. One of the first equations you must derive is relativistic mass at or beyond the speed of light. Photons have mass and travel at the speed of light. Therefore, relativistic mass must be established at the speed of light. How else would you calculate photon mass in the equation of photon energy unless you calculate photon mass at the speed of light?
In doing this, I set up what is called an initial value problem, which allows me to calculate the mass of any object at the speed of light as well as deriving the mass of a single photon. Without solving that problem, you cannot solve wave-particle duality specifically for the photon.
A one kilogram object at 99% of the speed of light is more than 500 kilograms. The question would be, "What is the mass of the object at exactly the speed of light, and where exactly is it destroyed?" Remember, mass increasing with velocity was proven in 1931 with the cyclotron.
I have that answer, and I give the mass of the object at v = c to the universities without telling them exactly how I got it. From there, I offer them a chance to review it, and then request the solution in its entirety, which covers all aspects of the problem described at the beginning of this discussion.
In this way, I can give the universities several important equations, several answers they would need to gain, and a brief discussion of how I got those answers while putting together the entire body of work concerning the solution.
There are no tricks to the solution, no fudge factors, and no arbitrary decisions. Every step taken in the solution is based on either a principle or a law of science, thus making it viable.
All they have to do is request the solution and ask me any questions to examine it. I give them a guarantee that I will answer any question and deliver any document.
It is still amazing to me that the remainder of the solution has not yet been requested. The entire solution exists in my books, of course, but the books are not really what a scientist would want to read. They may not have enough time to read 198 pages of a textbook, in addition to the fact that the textbook is basically a course in demonstrating all aspects of putting together the solution.
On the contrary, the best way to present the material to a scientist is to put the 9 pages of equations on the table with the summary edition and let the scientist ask some questions. This, of course, would require me to be there or to be available by mail to answer those questions.
Once again, this has not happened.
I have been prepared for quite some time for the rigorous examination. I will have to demonstrate the derivation of all equations, show the calculations, satisfy conservation, thermodynamics and relativity, and show how this all works across the board without violating known laws of science.
The answer is not one simple equation, or one simple statement. The answer involves a number of elements which must be sewn together, and the actual process of radiation must be clearly defined.
In simple terms, so that you can understand the basic proof, in order to solve wave-particle duality specifically for the photon, you must first demonstrate particle action and provide a calculation. Second, you must then use the exact same physics to demonstrate wave action and do that calculation as well. Third, you must justify mass at the speed of light and do that calculation. The universities have all of that.
Not only have I done all three things to prove I have a solution, but I have explained the entire process with a platform of equations which allow everything to work. I satisfy thermodynamics, conservation, and relativity, in a nice package of mathematics, prose, and graphics.
To demonstrate particle action, I used the photoelectric effect, which is what got Einstein his Nobel Prize. I get the exact answer I have to get. I then use the same physics on a cosmic level to demonstrate wave action, and once again I get the proper answer. Finally, in justifying the mass at the speed of light, I calculate an actual mass and show where the object will be destroyed.
You cannot do those calculations without first extending the relativistic equations which all yield infinity at the speed of light for Einstein.
Therefore, the solution is entirely fulfilled.
I hope to get a federal grant on this with a university, because it is worthy of pursuit. And, my pursuit of the grant shall not stop.
A LITTLE EXPERIMENTTo help you understand wave-particle duality specifically for the photon, you can do a small experiment with a flashlight and a mirror. The energy of the light in the flashlight is irrelevant. What matters is the action of the light.
In the image below you will see that the flashlight produces a central core of bright light surrounded by a halo of fuzzy light. This halo is the diffraction disk which is evidence of wave action. Yet, when this is reflected, it is a point for point reproduction on the back wall, which is particle action.
This represents simultaneous wave-particle action from a single source of light. All light will produce diffraction, even a laser.
The wave-particle duality of the photon, and by extension the graviton, is a phenomenon of radiance, which is quite different from what you would find in hadrons or leptons. For example, a neutrino can be tracked in a tank by the trail it leaves, showing us that it is indeed a particle, but that it does not take part in any radiance. The light from a flashlight in a tank of water would not produce the same action. There would be no trail to track from any particle, but simply light filling the tank itself.
END OF ARTICLE
Mr. J.V. Presogna has been a published writer, composer, and artist since the 1970s, with a strong background in science and mathematics. "The Truth About Eden" and "An Extension of Relativity" are only two of a number of published works. His most recent work is "The Origin of Existence," available as an eBook or Kindle Book.
In Albert Einstein's book, "Relativity: The Special and General Theory," published
December, 1916, he admits to contradictions in the general theory to the special
theory, the most notable being the statement, "... our result shows that, according
to the general theory of relativity, the law of the constancy of the velocity of light
in vacuo, which constitutes one of the two fundamental assumptions in the special
theory of relativity and to which we have already frequently referred, cannot claim
any unlimited validity. A curvature of rays of light can only take place when the
velocity of propagation of light varies with position. Now we might think that as
a consequence of this, the special theory of relativity and with it the whole theory
of relativity would be laid in the dust. But in reality this is not the case. We can only
conclude that the special theory of relativity cannot claim an unlimited domain of
validity; its results hold only so long as we are able to disregard the influences
of gravitational fields on the phenomena (e.g. of light)."
The velocity of light is affected by gravity, and the path of light will be altered by gravity, quite a different proposition from special relativity.
In 1972 I resolved the two major contradictions in relativity, and I solved the wave-particle duality problem specifically for the photon.
Briefly, both contradictions have both sides of the contradiction proved, which makes solving the problem an intractable problem.
Contradiction 1: In the early 19th century Thomas Young, through his well-known experiment, demonstrated that light acted like a wave. This was accepted until 1905, when Albert Einstein proved that light, as photons, acted like particles in the photoelectric effect. This contradiction, by way of 2 separate experiments, has both sides proved. Light, the electromagnetic radiation spectrum, has been proved to act like both waves and particles, and this cannot possibly be the final answer in itself. Something cannot be both wave and particle.
Contradiction 2: In 1915 when Einstein was working on general relativity and curved space, he directly contradicted one of the two fundamental principles of special relativity. That principle was that light's velocity was constant in a vacuum. In general relativity that is not true, and the direct contradiction states that light is affected by gravity and its velocity can change. This, of course, was actually proved in 1919, when deflection of starlight in a gravitational field was shown to be fact. The relativistic mass equation, however, was also shown to be fact in 1931 at sub-light speeds, when the cyclotron, a particle accelerator, was not able to function properly because of a relativistic gain in mass. The cyclotron had to be reset to account for the relativistic gain in mass. Yet, if the relativistic mass equation is absolute, no mass can exist at the speed of light, thus making photons with mass a contradiction in itself. Once again, the contradiction in question has both sides proved, since anything affected by gravity must have mass as was shown in 1919, and a relativistic gain in mass is a fact of life as of 1931.
I resolved both of those contradictions when I solved the wave-particle duality problem specifically for the photon in 1972, which required, among other things, an extension of all of the relativistic equations used in special relativity.
My equations do gain all of the correct answers that I am supposed to get, that is, the equations get the same answers that we already know to be true. Additionally, I can gain certain answers that current science cannot gain, and that is the benefit of my original work and the 21 sets of new mathematical equations I derived.
It is impossible to reveal all of that in this site, so I refer you to my book, AN EXTENSION OF RELATIVITY (Course Textbook) 3rd Edition, available at the my bookstore. In that Course Textbook you will find the 21 sets of equations I developed, and a complete explanation of what they define and represent in the theory.