Mr. J.V. Presogna
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Available Scientific Papers from 2010


(Papers From 2009)
(Papers From 2008)

Photon Propagation
and
Redshift

Photon Propagation and Redshift
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Read the Abstract Below

© 2010
74 pages, PDF Document, 824 KB
by Mr. J.V. Presogna

A free copy is available
to any university associate or professor.



The original scientific work on my extension of relativity was done by me in 1972. I became the first person to define the structure of a photon and to adequately calculate its mass. This solution would lead me to develope an entirely new scientific platform with 21 sets of new equations, able to answer questions current science cannot. I get the correct answers for known science, such as momentum of a photon, and I gain answers unable to be gained by current science. It is testable and provable, with physical experiments, and it is validated de facto when I can apply the principles across the board to relativity, quantum mechanics, nuclear energy, astrophysics, optics and other areas of science. In 2008, I applied the principles I originated in 1972 to solve the solar neutrino problem, defining a new equation which effectively works. I also did work on gravitational fields in 2008, again using the same principles. In 2009, I wrote a paper on the distance between 2 stars. In 2010, I examined redshift in photon propagation.


Photon Propagation and Redshift
ABSTRACT

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This paper will endeavor to demonstrate that any astronomical redshift that is measured must take into consideration the natural redshift from photon propagation itself. This natural redshift that takes place as the photon travels across space is responsible for a portion of the overall redshift for any star or galaxy, and it must ultimately be accounted for in the final calculations.

The graphic below demonstrates the wavelength concerning the hydrogen line (blue-green) λ = 486.1 nanometers, taken back to the surface of last scattering. This is the calculated natural redshift for a photon as it ages over time, not the overall redshift which is measured for the light from any star or galaxy.

Natural Redshift Over Time


It stands to reason that this natural redshift should be taken against any current redshift calculation for any star or galaxy. If the photon itself has a redshift over time, then the overall redshift from the light of any star or galaxy must be assumed to be less than what it appears to be.

This paper uses the Presogna Photon and its structure, along with the equations of definition, to demonstrate that redshift will take place for a photon emitted from a source even if the source is not in motion, and that redshift for any photon can occur simply as a result of photon propagation.

For a more complete understanding of all the equations used, reading "An Extension of Relativity, 3rd Edition," by Mr. J.V. Presogna, would be recommended.

A concise summary of the Presogna Photon and some other important information is appended to the end of this paper for quick reference. Below is a quick reference as an introduction.

***

Quoted directly from my past introductory material on the photon: The Presogna Photon is globular in nature. It has a central speck of mass surrounded by a globular wave function whose frequency is determined by the vibrations of the central mass. The total energy of the photon is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy of the central mass and the globular wave function. The globular wave function is not the wavelength, but rather a function of the mass. The wavelength is returned as total energy. The kinetic energy is calculated for constant value of c.

Therefore, the photon moves through space via the kinetic energy of its central mass, but it carries a unique momentum based on the total energy. The average mass of a photon is 1.633413408 × 10-41 kilograms, and this is the basic unit for calculations in our galaxy. If a photon had originated from the beginning of the universe, its central mass would be much smaller, possibly as low as 9.722781306 × 10-94 kilograms.


***

Note: The photon from the beginning of the universe in the above quote is re-calculated in this discussion to a more accurate degree from the surface of last scattering at 400,000 years.

The calculations in this paper were performed on a Texas Instruments TI-36X Solar Calculator and the JVPCalc2 Desktop Calculator. Precision should be regarded as 5 decimal places, because of the way that calculators work, i.e. sometimes calculations take place as a string of functions all in a row, while other times certain numbers are used as input in parts and stored. This causes the last 2 decimal places in any answer to sometimes vary. Therefore, 5 decimal places should be considered the best precision for any final answer.

Table of Contents

Calculating a Redshift from Decreasing Oscillation
and Loss of Mass in the Photon
Page 4


A brief overview of the background which leads to the paper's proposals is presented. Using the hydrogen line λ = 486.1 × 10-9 meters (486.1 nanometers, blue-green), the calculations for new λ and "z" are made for the natural redshift for photon propagation taken back to the surface of last scattering. This discussion proposes that, if the mass of the photon is reduced over time, the ability to oscillate will have an affect on the globular wave function, and thus have an effect on wavelength over time. In other words, a smaller and smaller mass would generate a lower frequency because of the lack of ability to make those vibrations necessary to form the globular wave function. Additionally, the ultimate life of a photon is addressed, whereas the photon will continue into space forever, but its ability to generate a significant globular wave function will cease at about 27.507 billion years.

The Difference Between Recession Velocity/Expansion
(Relativistic Doppler Redshift)
and Propagation Redshift
Page 10


The actual difference between relativistic doppler redshift and natural redshift due to photon propagation is discussed, using mathematics and graphics. Natural redshift due to photon propagation will happen regardless of any apparent motion of the source.

Redshift and Photon Propagation
Page 12

The natural redshift of a photon over time is charted over the life of the universe, 13.7 billion years. These calculated figures are then compared to the measured redshift on record of certain stars, galaxies and supernovas, gained from sources online such as Cal Tech, Notre Dame, Harvard, Ohio State, and the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field Survey. All of my calculations for natural redshift for photon propagation over time are also included.

Comparisons, Summary and Conclusions
Page 58

Comparisons are made and a summary of this paper is presented with conclusions for this work and possible additional work in the future.

Presogna Photon Introduction
Appendix - Page 65

An introduction to the Presogna Photon is appended, with added material related to this paper.

Mr. J.V. Presogna



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