Mr. J.V. Presogna
Presogna Productions

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"Science and Mathematics"

Science News, Sites and Universities

Neutrino Units, Neutrino Transformations, Momenta Neutrino Units, Transformations,
Momenta

The Presogna Photon, The Neutrino & The Graviton The
Presogna
Photon, The Neutrino &
The Graviton

The Distance Between 2 Stars The Distance
Between
2 Stars

Photon Propagation and Redshift Photon Propagation
and Redshift

An Extension of Relativity, 3rd Edition An
Extension
of
Relativity
3rd Edition

Gravitons & Gravitational Radiation Gravitons & Gravitational
Radiation

An Introduction To My Original Scientific Work

I am currently contacting universities in the United States to pursue experiments concerning my original work, which I developed in 1972.

What I have done is much more than a mere footnote. I have clarified an Einstein conjecture, balanced his equations, defined two items he never defined, resolved 2 contradictions on relativity, and solved wave-particle duality specifically for the photon, in addition to providing a new, unique, and original mathematical platform for continued work. Although it takes a great deal of work to actually do what I did, in simple terms one can explain wave-particle duality specifically for the photon as making it possible to show the radiance of the sun in all directions infinitely with the same definition used to explain an electron emitting a single photon. I am the only person to do such work. It actually does not prove Einstein wrong, but rather clarifies his conjecture. Yes, mass is destroyed as it passes the speed of light, but at exactly the speed of light and a little further, we can measure mass. This helps solve the problem of photons being deflected in gravitation in 1919, which proved photons have mass and yet travel at the speed of light. Anything affected by gravitation must have mass whether it is attraction at a distance with Newton or curved space with Einstein. I have written 9 books on this, with documentation back to the 1980s.

To help you understand wave-particle duality specifically for the photon, you can do a small experiment with a flashlight and a mirror. The energy of the light in the flashlight is irrelevant. What matters is the action of the light.

In the image below you will see that the flashlight produces a central core of bright light surrounded by a halo of fuzzy light. This halo is the diffraction disk which is evidence of wave action. Yet, when this is reflected, it is a point for point reproduction on the back wall, which is particle action.

This represents simultaneous wave-particle action from a single source of light. All light will produce diffraction, even a laser.

Simultaneous Wave-Particle Action


The wave-particle duality of the photon, and by extension the graviton, is a phenomenon of radiance, which is quite different from what you would find in hadrons or leptons. For example, a neutrino can be tracked in a tank by the trail it leaves, showing us that it is indeed a particle, but that it does not take part in any radiance. The light from a flashlight in a tank of water would not produce the same action. There would be no trail to track from any particle, but simply light filling the tank itself.


Textbook Introduction: An Extension of Relativity, 3rd Edition

Textbook Introduction: The Presogna Photon, The Neutrino & The Graviton


In Albert Einstein's book, "Relativity: The Special and General Theory," published December, 1916, he admits to contradictions in the general theory to the special theory, the most notable being the statement, "... our result shows that, according to the general theory of relativity, the law of the constancy of the velocity of light in vacuo, which constitutes one of the two fundamental assumptions in the special theory of relativity and to which we have already frequently referred, cannot claim any unlimited validity. A curvature of rays of light can only take place when the velocity of propagation of light varies with position. Now we might think that as a consequence of this, the special theory of relativity and with it the whole theory of relativity would be laid in the dust. But in reality this is not the case. We can only conclude that the special theory of relativity cannot claim an unlimited domain of validity; its results hold only so long as we are able to disregard the influences of gravitational fields on the phenomena (e.g. of light)."

The velocity of light is affected by gravity, and the path of light will be altered by gravity, quite a different proposition from special relativity.

In 1972 I resolved the two major contradictions in relativity, and I solved the wave-particle duality problem specifically for the photon.

Briefly, both contradictions have both sides of the contradiction proved, which makes solving the problem an intractable problem.

Contradiction 1: In the early 19th century Thomas Young, through his well-known experiment, demonstrated that light acted like a wave. This was accepted until 1905, when Albert Einstein proved that light, as photons, acted like particles in the photoelectric effect. This contradiction, by way of 2 separate experiments, has both sides proved. Light, the electromagnetic radiation spectrum, has been proved to act like both waves and particles, and this cannot possibly be the final answer in itself. Something cannot be both wave and particle.

Contradiction 2: In 1915 when Einstein was working on general relativity and curved space, he directly contradicted one of the two fundamental principles of special relativity. That principle was that light's velocity was constant in a vacuum. In general relativity that is not true, and the direct contradiction states that light is affected by gravity and its velocity can change. This, of course, was actually proved in 1919, when deflection of starlight in a gravitational field was shown to be fact. The relativistic mass equation, however, was also shown to be fact in 1931 at sub-light speeds, when the cyclotron, a particle accelerator, was not able to function properly because of a relativistic gain in mass. The cyclotron had to be reset to account for the relativistic gain in mass. Yet, if the relativistic mass equation is absolute, no mass can exist at the speed of light, thus making photons with mass a contradiction in itself. Once again, the contradiction in question has both sides proved, since anything affected by gravity must have mass as was shown in 1919, and a relativistic gain in mass is a fact of life as of 1931.

I resolved both of those contradictions when I solved the wave-particle duality problem specifically for the photon in 1972, which required, among other things, an extension of all of the relativistic equations used in special relativity.

My equations do gain all of the correct answers that I am supposed to get, that is, the equations get the same answers that we already know to be true. Additionally, I can gain certain answers that current science cannot gain, and that is the benefit of my original work and the 21 sets of new mathematical equations I derived.

It is impossible to reveal all of that in this site, so I refer you to my book, AN EXTENSION OF RELATIVITY (Course Textbook) 3rd Edition, available at the my bookstore. In that Course Textbook you will find the 21 sets of equations I developed, and a complete explanation of what they define and represent in the theory.



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